This research looks at what it takes to make immigration work in Canada’s small and rural communities. It examines the availability of settlement services in small and rural communities under the current settlement service agreements, which began in 2020–21, and the final year of the previous settlement service agreements, 2019–20. It studies the institutional barriers to meeting the settlement needs of immigrants in small and rural communities and the role that government and other stakeholders can play in addressing these barriers.
Making Rural Immigration Work - Settlement Services in Small and Rural Communities (2022)
- Settlement service provision in small and rural communities is challenging because service providers are expected to serve a wide range of settlement needs with limited funding and few opportunities to refer people to other local social service organizations.
- Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) is a gold standard funder of settlement services for its high level of engagement with settlement service providers, the provision of long-term service agreements that offer organizational stability, and funding for a wide range of settlement service types.
- IRCC is continuing to expand the reach of settlement services. There were nearly 100 communities where no services had been provided in 2019–20 but where five or more unique services were provided in 2020–21.
- Settlement service providers need substantial resources and expertise to successfully apply for IRCC funding, making it difficult for organizations to emerge in small and rural communities that don’t already have settlement services.
- While immigration policies aim to increase the distribution of immigrants across Canada, IRCC funding priorities for settlement services do not adequately support this goal.
- Digital service provision can improve access to settlement services, especially among those for whom transportation or child care is a barrier. But digital service provision works best as a complement to in-person services, not a replacement..