Publication Author information

Pia Orrenius


Enforcement and illegal migration
Enforcement and illegal migration
Published on: November 3, 2019
While empirical studies find that border and interior enforcement serve as deterrents to illegal immigration, immigration enforcement is costly and carries unintended consequences, such as a decrease in circular migration, an increase in smuggling, and higher prevalence of off-the-books employment and use of fraudulent and falsified documents.
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